In the United States, the year 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction and the start of the Gilded Age . The first truly landmark equal protection decision by the Supreme Court was Strauder v. West Virginia (1880). A black man convicted of murder by an all-white jury challenged a West Virginia statute excluding blacks from serving on juries. Exclusion of blacks from juries, the Court concluded, was a denial of equal protection to black defendants, since the jury had been "drawn from a panel from which the State has expressly excluded every man of [the defendant's] race." At the same time, the Court explicitly allowed sexism and other types of discrimination, saying that states "may confine the selection to males, to freeholders, to citizens, to persons within certain ages, or to persons having educational qualifications. We do not believe the Fourteenth Amendment was ever intended to prohibit this... Its aim was against discrimination because of race or color." 
Although Brown overturned the doctrine of separate but equal with respect to institutions of public education, it would be almost ten more years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 would prohibit private discrimination in facilities, such as transportation and hotels, that were considered public accommodations. Additionally, in 1967 under Loving v. Virginia , the United States Supreme Court declared Virginia 's anti-miscegenation statute, the " Racial Integrity Act of 1924 ", unconstitutional, and invalidated all anti-miscegenation laws in the United States . Although federal legislation prohibits racial discrimination in college admissions, the historically black colleges and universities continue to teach student bodies that are 75% to 90% African American.  This however does not necessarily indicate racial discrimination within college admissions in those schools when factors such as student preference are taken into account. [ citation needed ] In 1975, Jake Ayers Sr. filed a lawsuit against Mississippi , stating that they gave more financial support to the predominantly white public colleges. The state settled the lawsuit in 2002, directing $503 million to three historically black colleges over 17 years. 
We would like to thank you all for your supportive comments, which capture the spirit of what our goals are at the Pennsylvania Civil Rights Law Network .